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Deals damage, and the user receives recoil damage equal to 1/2 of the damage dealt, rounded half up, but not less than 1 HP.
Head Smash is the strongest Rock-type move, but huge recoil and terrible distribution means that it is not so common. Due to 50% recoil (a distinction shared by no other move), Pokemon with the ability Rock Head use Head Smash best. Aggron and Relicanth get STAB and can rip through unprepared teams with Head Smash if they get a Rock Polish to boost their abysmal Speed. Rampardos, while not having Rock Head, has a massive 165 base Attack and will do great damage even to Pokemon who resist Head Smash. Emboar, Donphan, and Scrafty can use it as a coverage move, though the recoil will severely impact their otherwise good bulk. Archeops can use Head Smash with a Rock Gem to OHKO practically anything it wants, though it will become nearly useless afterwards due to its ability, Defeatist.
Stone Edge is weaker, but does not have recoil.
Rock Slide is half as powerful, but has better accuracy, no recoil, and a chance to flinch the opponent.