Sections in this guide: Introduction Base Stats Internal Values Characteristics Hidden Power Effort Values Natures Putting it all together Introduction As you probably know, every Pokémon has six stats. They are Hit Points, Attack, Defense, Special Attack, Special Defense, and Speed. Each stat serves a different purpose. Hit Points act as your Pokémon’s health, and they are decreased as the Pokémon takes hits. Once a Pokémon’s Hit Points reach 0, it faints, and is no longer able to participate in battle. Attack and Special Attack determine how hard your Pokémon can hit with Physical and Special moves respectively. Defense and Special Defense reduce the damage done from Physical and Special Moves, so that less Hit Points are taken away. Last, but certainly not least, the Speed stat determines how fast your Pokémon is; what it can outrun in the heat of battle. The stats are often abbreviated; Hit Points becomes HP, Attack to Atk, Defense to Def, Special Attack to SpA, Special Defense to SpD, and Speed to Spe. Hit Points can also be confused with the move Hidden Power on some occasions, as both can be abbreviated as HP. However, Hidden Power’s abbreviation should be followed with a type (more on this in the Internal Values section). Each stat has a number assigned to it. This number can be found on the Pokémon’s summary, both in-game, and in a simulator such as Shoddy Battle. However, there are a number of factors contributing to this final number. Keep reading to take a look at them. Base Stats Chances are, you’ve heard of Base Stats before. They’re listed in Pokémon discussions, and are in the SmogonDex entries for every single Pokémon! There’s also a very good chance you don’t know exactly what Base Stats are. In short, Base Stats are a huge factor contributing to a Pokémon’s final stats, and they effectively set a limit on how high or low a Pokémon’s stats can go. Unlike many other factors, Base Stats are shared by entire species of Pokémon. For example, all Gengar have the same Base Special Attack of 130. A separate Base Stat is assigned to all six stats. However, there is no indication in-game of a Pokémon’s Base Stats, so you must visit the SmogonDex to discover them. Base Stats are somewhat deceptive; what you see by looking at a Pokémon’s SmogonDex entry does not reflect their final stats. For more information on how to “normalize” base stats, in order to get more helpful information from them, please read X-Act’s guide to Normalized Base Stats. Natures Every Pokémon is assigned a word that describes it, known as a nature. In-game, a Pokémon’s nature is set when it is encountered in the wild, or when an Egg is first created. In simulated play, natures can be modified at will. Natures can provide a boost and drop to certain stats. Natures are commonly referred to as boosting, neutral, and hindering. This can be narrowed down to only two types: affecting and neutral. Affecting natures will give a 10% bonus to one stat, while giving a 10% drop to another, and neutral natures do nothing at all. It is always best to give your Pokémon an affecting nature. A list of natures is as follows : Nature Boosts Hinders Adamant Atk SpA Bashful -- -- Bold Def Atk Brave Atk Spe Calm SpD Atk Careful SpD SpA Docile -- -- Gentle SpD Def Hardy -- -- Hasty Spe Def Impish Def SpA Jolly Spe SpA Lax Def SpD Lonely Atk Def Mild SpA Def Modest SpA Atk Naive Spe SpD Naughty Atk SpD Quiet SpA Spe Quirky -- -- Rash SpA SpD Relaxed Def Spe Sassy SpD Spe Serious -- -- Timid Spe Atk Internal Values Every Pokémon has six Internal Values (abbreviated as IVs), one for each stat. Simply put, they are extra points towards each stat. This extra point can actually be 0, or high as 31. One wants their Pokémon to have the best IVs possible, however, this does not always mean all 31s (more on this shortly). These values are not visible in-game, and cannot be changed once they are set. The Pokémon’s IVs are set when you either encounter the Pokémon in the wild, or in the case of an Egg, when you take it into your party. In a simulator, you set your Pokémon’s IVs yourself, and they can easily be seen and changed. In-game, it is best to use an online calculator, inputting your Pokémon’s stats at multiple levels, usually including its Characteristic (more on this in the next section). Calculating the IVs of your Pokémon based on its stats is only exact when the Pokémon is at level 100. Otherwise, there will be multiple possibilities. This can be a frustrating factor for finding the IVs of say, a freshly hatched Egg. An IV calculator can narrow down the possibilities when you input the stats at multiple levels, usually via Rare Candy level-ups. However, there are two other methods to lower your range. One method is called an “IV Battle”. This is when you enter a DS Level 100 Wifi Battle using the Pokémon which you would like to check the IVs of. Simply view the summary of the Pokémon, and check the stats. They can be entered in a calculator, or used with the following formula (devised by community members X-Act and Peterko) to determine the IVs. IV = ceiling(S * 10 / P) - (2 * B + N) S represents the stat at level 100. B is the value of the relevant base stat. N represents a number; 110 if HP is being calculated, and 5 otherwise. P accounts for the nature; the value is 9 for a hindering nature, 10 for a neutral nature, and 11 for a boosting nature. The operation “ceiling” simply means to round up whatever number you get from the operations within the first bracket. Note that there must be no “Effort Values” (more on these later) in the stat for this formula to work. For example, say that you want to find the HP IV of a freshly hatched Bulbasaur. Your friend brings their Turtwig along, and you both participate in a Level 100 Wifi Battle. Suppose you saw on Bulbasaur’s summary screen that it had an HP stat of 225 at level 100. Upon checking Bulbasaur’s SmogonDex entry, you would see its base HP is 45. HP IV = ceiling(225* 10 / 10) - (2 * 45 + 110) = ceiling(225 * 1) - (200) Multiplying by 1 does not actually affect any numbers, so it’s okay to simply drop a *1 if you come across it. = (225) - (200) = 25 Therefore, you could determine through your IV battle that your level 1 Bulbasaur had an HP IV of 25. For a different stat, let’s go back to the IV battle between the Bulbasaur and Turtwig. Let’s say that the other participant in the battle wanted to check their Turtwig’s Attack stat. Turtwig’s SmogonDex entry shows that it has a Base Attack stat of 68. Let’s use the formula under the assumption that the Turtwig had an Attack stat of 189, due to an Attack-boosting nature. Atk IV = ceiling(189 *10 / 11) - (2 * 68 + 5) = ceiling(189 * 0.90909090909) - (141) As a result of dividing 10 by 11, we get an ugly decimal. You do not round this up; rather due to the “ceiling” operation, the end result will be the rounded number. Instead, you can merely cut off the decimal after it repeats itself twice. = ceiling(189 * 0.9090) - (141) = ceiling(171.801) - (141) Remember that the operation “ceiling” requires you to round up! = (172) - (141) = 31 It’s flawless, a thing of perfection! In this case, your friend’s Turtwig would have a flawless Attack IV of 31. Characteristics A way to limit at a single IV’s range is using the Pokémon’s Characteristic. This is often input directly into an online calculator, and can be used manually as well. The Characteristic is a short phrase describing the Pokémon’s personality that can be found on its summary. This phrase will match the last (or only) digit of its highest IV. If the Pokémon has two or more IVs that are tied for the highest, the game will assign one, seemingly at random. The Characteristics are: Hit Points 31 26 21 16 11 6 1 Often dozes off. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Loves to eat. 29 24 19 14 9 4 -- Likes to relax. 28 23 18 13 8 3 -- Often scatters things. 27 22 17 12 7 2 -- Scatters things often. Attack 31 26 21 16 11 6 1 Likes to thrash about. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Proud of its power. 29 24 19 14 9 4 -- Quick tempered. 28 23 18 13 8 3 -- Likes to fight. 27 22 17 12 7 2 -- A little quick tempered. Defense 31 26 21 16 11 6 1 Capable of taking hits. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sturdy body. 29 24 19 14 9 4 -- Good perseverance. 28 23 18 13 8 3 -- Good endurance. 27 22 17 12 7 2 -- Highly persistent. Special Attack 31 26 21 16 11 6 1 Mischievous. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly curious. 29 24 19 14 9 4 -- Very finicky. 28 23 18 13 8 3 -- Often lost in thought. 27 22 17 12 7 2 -- Thoroughly cunning. Special Defense 31 26 21 16 11 6 1 Somewhat vain. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strong willed. 29 24 19 14 9 4 -- Somewhat stubborn. 28 23 18 13 8 3 -- Hates to lose. 27 22 17 12 7 2 -- Strongly defiant. Speed 31 26 21 16 11 6 1 Alert to Sounds 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Likes to run 29 24 19 14 9 4 -- Quick to flee 28 23 18 13 8 3 -- Somewhat of a clown 27 22 17 12 7 2 -- Impetuous and silly There is a Special-based move that changes type and power depending on the user’s IVs. This move is featured in many movesets, and is known as... Hidden Power Hidden Power is the most versatile move in Pokémon; not only can it vary in type, but its Base Power varies as well! But why is a move listed in this guide, with stats? The answer is that Hidden Power’s type and power is dependent on IVs. The type of Hidden Power is always listed as “Normal”, though Normal is one of the two types it cannot become, the other being “???”. In simulators, your Pokémon’s Hidden Power is typically listed with its IVs. In-game, it is not explicitly stated, so you have three ways of finding it one being testing it against other Pokémon to see if it is Super Effective (or otherwise), using the process of elimination. If you can find a Kecleon, it’s best to use the move against it. In Platinum, the process is even more straightforward; there is a man in Jubilife City who will tell you your Pokémon’s Hidden Power type. If you wish, you may also use an online IV calculator. Most of these will display the Hidden Power type along with the IVs. The last method is using a formula of sorts, based on your Pokémon’s IVs: Begin at 0. If Hit Points IV is odd, +1, otherwise +0. If Attack IV is odd, +2, otherwise +0. If Defense IV is odd, +4, otherwise, +0. If Special Attack IV is odd, +16, otherwise +0. If Special Defense IV is odd, +32, otherwise +0. If Speed IV is odd, +8, otherwise +0. You will end up with a number between 0 and 63, provided you did all your calculations correctly! It is a good idea to double check to make sure you included all the IVs. Now, the number you came up with corresponds to a type, which can be found with the list below: 0-4: Fighting 5-8: Flying 9-12: Poison 13-16: Ground 17-20: Rock 21-25: Bug 26-39: Ghost 30-33: Steel 34-37: Fire 38-41: Water 42-46: Grass 47-50: Electric 51-54: Psychic 55-58: Ice 59-62: Dragon 63: Dark So let’s say there is a Mew with IVs of 31/21/6/22/9/27 (HP/Atk/Def/SpA/SpD/Spe). You would plug in the numbers like so: (Begin at 0) (31 is odd) +1 (12 is even) +0 (6 is even) +0 (22 is even) +0 (9 is odd) + 32 (27 is odd) + 8 Adding the 0s doesn’t affect the answer in any way, as the operation used is addition. 0 + 32 + 8 + 1 = 41 Upon scanning the list, it can be seen that Mew has Hidden Power Water. This is best abbreviated as HP [Water] to avoid confusion with the Hit Points stat. So what about the Base Power? The Base Power for the move Hidden Power is also based off of the user’s IVs. Like with type, the Base Power can be found with IVs in a battle simulator. In-game it is a bit more of a hassle to find. With the Base Power being between 30 and 70, and the random factor in damage calculation, it is inefficient to test it against other Pokémon. Instead, you may use an IV calculator that displays Hidden Power attributes, or you can use the method below: Begin at 0. If Hit Points IV is odd, +1, otherwise +0. If Attack IV is odd, +2, otherwise +0. If Defense IV is odd, +4, otherwise, +0. If Special Attack IV is odd, +16, otherwise +0. If Special Defense IV is odd, +32, otherwise +0. If Speed IV is odd, +8, otherwise +0. Multiply by 40. Divide by 63 (round down). If the number is < 0, it becomes 0. Add 30. This method for finding the Base Power is much like finding the type, but with a few added steps. The number you get at the end is the actual Base Power, so there is no need to look at a list. So plugging in the aforementioned Mew’s IVs... (Begin at 0) (31 is odd) +1 (12 is even) +0 (6 is even) +0 (22 is even) +0 (9 is odd) + 32 (27 is odd) + 8 0 + 32 + 8 + 1 = 41 So far, this is the same as with finding the type. Here’s where it gets a little different: 41 x 40 = 1640 1640 / 63 = 26 (rounded down) 26 + 30 = 56 This means that Mew has a Hidden Power of the Water type, with 56 Base Power. That is not a great Hidden Power; the minimum for a usable Base Power is around 65 for most Pokémon. In simulated play, this could easily be remedied by finding a combination that yields 70 Base Power, though in Mew’s case, it can learn more powerful Special Water moves anyway! In-game, it is possible to pass on IVs from breeding, so you can attempt to have control over type and power that way. Keep in mind that if your Pokémon has the Ability Technician, you will want to go for a base power from 55-60, in order to get a boost in power from Technician. For more information, see Toothache's guide to Technician Hidden Powers. Effort Values Effort Values are potential extra points for each stat. However, there is a limit; you can only have a total of 510 EVs on your Pokémon. What’s more is that each stat can receive a maximum of 255 EVs. Each Effort Value is worth 25%, or 1/4th of a stat point at level 100. That means that for every four EVs you give your Pokémon, it will gain one point in the appropriate stat. Thus, it is imperative to put EVs in your Pokémon’s stats in increments of 4. This will also allow the EVs to boost a minimum of 3 stats (using the “beginner’s spread” of 252/252/4 or some variation). In simulators such as Shoddy Battle, you can easily input the amount of EVs for your Pokémon on its summary. In-game, it is slightly more difficult to adjust EVs. First of all, once your Pokémon has EVs on it, it is impossible to determine the exact amount it has, if you do not keep track. Second, while putting EVs on your Pokémon can be partially done with items, most of it is made up of a process known as “EV Training”. The aforementioned items that increase EVs are : Vitamins HP Up: +10 Hit Points EVs Protein: +10 Attack EVs Iron: + 10 Defense EVs Calcium: + 10 Special Attack EVs Zinc: +10 Special Defense EVs Carbos: +10 Speed EVs Power Items Power Weight: + 4 Hit Points EVs each time the holder gains Experience Power Bracer: +4 Attack EVs each time the holder gains Experience Power Belt: + 4 Defense EVs each time the holder gains Experience Power Lens: +4 Special Attack EVs each time the holder gains Experience Power Band: +4 Special Defense EVs each time the holder gains Experience Power Anklet: +4 Speed EVs each time the holder gains Experience A Pokémon can only ingest up to 100 vitamins in its lifetime; 10 for each stat. This makes it possible to gain up to 100 EVs in each stat. The Pokérus does not affect the EVs gained from Vitamins (more on this later). As for the Power Items, they only kick in when the user gains Experience (and EVs, but you’ll read about that in a minute) from a wild Pokémon. However, they can be affected by Pokérus. There are items that can decrease the EVs as well. Now you may say “Why on earth would I want to decrease EVs? That’s taking away from the stats!”. The reason is that you may make an error while EV Training, and need to delete some incorrect EVs, due to the EV cap. Or, perhaps you received a Pokémon in a trade, and are unsure of its EV spread, so you would like to start over. This is made easier by the following Berries : #21 Pomeg Berry: -10 or more Hit Points EVs #22 Kelpsy Berry: -10 or more Attack EVs #23 Qualot Berry: -10 or more Defense EVs #24 Hondew Berry: -10 or more Special Attack EVs #25 Grepa Berry: -10 or more Special Defense EVs #26 Tamato Berry: -10 or more Speed EVs Upon looking at the above list, you’re probably confused by the “-10 or more” bit. This is because if the amount of EVs in the Stat you are subtracting from is 110 or less, the Berry will take away 10 EVs. Any higher than 110 however, and the EVs will simply be reset to 100. This is a big help for if you made a huge mistake, like put EVs in the wrong stat, but it can also be a bigger pain if say, you put 255 in a stat instead of 252. To get the most of your EVs (there is only a 2 EV margin of error), you would have to use a Berry to reduce them to 100 for that stat. Berries are not affected by Pokérus. So what is this “EV Training” exactly? EV training is essentially like training your Pokémon ... with a twist. Instead of focussing on the Experience the defeated Pokémon provides, you want to focus on the EVs. Whenever you gain Experience from a fainted Pokémon, you will also receive the Pokémon’s dropped EVs, which is a set value for each species. Like you would expect, there is no way to see this number without looking into the game’s code, or using an online Pokédex. The latter is recommended. The purpose of EV Training is to faint as many Pokémon that give the EVs you want as possible, making sure that the Pokémon you want to give the EVs to gains Experience; Experience and EVs are passed together. This allows EVs to be passed via the use of an Exp. Share. Unlike Experience points, EVs are not divided and shared between the participants. Now, EV training, even after you figure out good places to encounter Pokémon, can be quite tedious. Luckily, there are more ways to increase the amount of EVs that your Pokémon gains. The item Macho Brace doubles the amount of EVs the holder receives, albeit with a Speed Item Modifier of 0.5 when the holder is in battle. Note that the holder must actually enter battle to gain the EVs if they are holding Macho Brace, as they cannot use Exp. Share; no Pokémon can be holding two items at the same time! Lastly, but perhaps most useful of all is Pokérus. Pokérus is a virus that can infect your Pokémon upon healing them at a Pokémon Centre, after fighting some wild battles. Once a Pokémon has Pokérus, it is marked by a PKRS on the Pokémon’s summary. During this time, the Pokémon is able to pass the Pokérus condition onto others, so long as the other Pokémon are in your party. That means Pokérus cannot be spread through the Daycare or Boxes. What Pokérus does is double the amount of EVs gained. This stacks with any item that the infected Pokémon is holding ... this can speed up the process of EV training substantially. This is the formula for finding EVs with Pokérus: EVs Gained = (Pokérus Boost * (Macho Brace Boost * (Power Item Boost + EVs given by defeated Pokémon))) It is important to follow this formula while recording your EVs, especially since there is no way of checking exact EVs later. Note that there can never be both Macho Brace and a Power Item affecting one Pokémon at any given time; each Pokémon can only hold one item. Once a Pokémon has Pokérus, it will keep its EV doubling effect for the rest of its days. It will not however, be able to spread the virus after a certain amount of time. After 24-48 hours, the PKRS on the Pokémon’s summary will become what is best described as a neutral smilie (:|). This means that the Pokémon can no longer spread the virus. This can be avoided by storing infected Pokémon in a Box at the end of each day; Pokérus does not expire on Pokémon in Boxes. Putting it all together The formula for determining a Pokémon's stats is somewhat long, but if you just follow each step, is not that difficult. For determining a Pokémon's HP, you use the following formula: HP = ((2 * BaseStat + IV + (EV / 4)) * Level / 100 + Level + 10) HP is your final stat. BaseStat is the Pokémon's base stat. IV is the Pokémon's IV. EV is the amount of EVs, or "Effort Values" that the Pokémon has. Level is the Pokémon's level. You round down the value you get after each set of parentheses. There is only one situation where this formula does not work; Shedinja will always have 1 HP, no matter how many EVs or IVs are in its HP stat. If you want to find a stat that isn't HP, then you use the following formula: Stat = (((2 * BaseStat + IV + (EV / 4)) * Level / 100 + 5) * Nature) Stat is your final stat. BaseStat is the Pokémon's base stat. IV is the Pokémon's IV. EV is the amount of EVs, or "Effort Values" that the Pokémon has. Level is the Pokémon's level, which ranges from 1 to 100. Nature is 1.1 if the Pokémon has a nature that raises the relevant stat, .9 if it lowers it, and 1 otherwise. You round down the value you get after each set of parentheses. Let’s do some examples. First, we will see how much HP a Blissey would have at level 100. For our intents and purposes, this Blissey will have an HP IV of 31. At the time of writing, a standard “Diverse Blissey” invests 148 EVs into its HP stat. Now, upon looking up Blissey in the SmogonDex, one can see that its base HP is 255 (incidentally, this is the highest base HP of any Pokémon). Since there are no Natures that affect HP, we have all the numbers required to determine Blissey’s HP stat! HP = (((2 * 255 + 31 + (148 / 4)) * 100 / 100 + 100 + 10) = ((541 + (37)) * 1 + 110) Multiplying a number by 1 does not affect anything. Any multiplications by 1 can be dropped. = ((578) + 110) = 688 Therefore, at level 100, with an HP IV of 31, and 148 EVs, Blissey would have a final HP stat of 688. The other stats follow a different formula, so it would be beneficial to try an example with them as well. Any stat other than HP will work, but for this specific example, we will use a level 100 Salamence’s Attack stat. This Salamence will have an Attack IV of 31, as well as an investment of 252 EVs. Since we are dealing with a Stat that can be affected by Natures, this should be taken into account. Here, Salamence will have a nature that boosts Attack. Last but not least, Salamence’s SmogonDex entry will reveal its base Attack is 135. Atk = (((2 * 135 + 31 + (252 / 4)) * 100 / 100 + 5) * 1.1) = (((301 + (63) * 1 + 5) * 1.1) Again, multiplying by 1 is not necessary. = (((364) + 5 ) * 1.1) = ((369) * 1.1) = 405.9 Despite that tempting 9, remember to always round down. = 405 Therefore, at level 100, with an Atk IV of 31, 252 EVs, and a boosting Nature, Salamence would have a final Atk stat of 405. As you’ll likely have noticed by now, what you see on your Pokémon’s summary screen barely scratches the surface of its competitive attributes. Even so, this is only the tip of the iceberg. Once you understand the concepts described in this guide, you have come a long way In learning the “technical aspects” of competitive Pokémon battling. Once you are ready to take the plunge, be sure to read up on how your stats are affected when you use certain moves in battle, or let your Pokémon hold items in battle, with Smogon’s very own Stats Guide. __________________________________ Unfortunately, this is probably my last contribution for a while, as my well of ideas has run dry, so to speak. Anyway, I started this guide about a year ago, got it perhaps two thirds completed, then for whatever reason, ceased work on it entirely. Only this summer did I remember its existence, and only very recently did I decide to complete it. The reason I decided to finish it was the reason I stated : for some reason, Smogon doesn’t have a guide detailing what all of the different factors contributing to a Pokémon’s stats are. Now, most of you reading Contributions and Corrections are outside my target audience, or at least I assume. This isn’t a guide for experts, but rather a guide for people who come to Smogon, perhaps see some of the analyses, and think “What the hell are they talking about?” This guide is for people who have never heard of IVs, don’t know what natures do, and think that EVs are related to Eevee and its evolutions. So I’m sorry if you didn’t learn anything, but it’s more for first-time visitors. On that note, I would love all your feedback concerning the guide, be it feedback, corrections, or whatever else you have to say. My one concern is that it may be a tad heavy in the “IV” section; I tried to rectify this by giving Hidden Power and Characteristics their own sections, but I’m leaning towards cutting the former entirely. If anyone has any suggestions on the matter, or on anything else, please let me know!